Papers

PAYS® and Participant Savings. This two-page brief in Q&A format addresses how PAYS delivers reliable savings to program participants without a savings guarantee. June 2020

Is PAYS® compliant with Federal Law? This brief paper addresses this question, raised by a number of advocacy and legal advisors . December 28, 2019

CCAs and Tariffed On-bill Programs in Restructured States. On July 31, 2017, Frontier Energy and Energy Efficiency Institute submitted a paper, Summary of On-bill Opportunities and Obstacles, to Sonoma Clean Power, a California Community Choice Aggregator (CCA). This issue brief summarizes the key barriers to CCAs implementing PAYS programs discussed in that paper, which also may be applicable to utilities in other restructured states. December 28, 2019.

Response to PAYS®Feasibility Study prepared for Kansas City Power and Light by Cadmus. The Missouri Office of the Public Counsel submitted this response prepared by the Energy Efficiency Institute, Inc. to the Missouri Public Service Commission. The response examines key elements of successful PAYS programs and provides current costs for utilities implementing PAYS programs.  January 8, 2019 

What is inclusive financing for energy efficiency, and why are some of the largest states in the country calling for it now? 2018 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings; Holmes Hummel, PhD, Clean Energy Works & Harlan Lachman, Energy Efficiency Institute, Inc. A summary of the PAYS®system and how it was implemented at 17 utilities in seven states.  August 12-15, 2018

Potential for Development of PAYS®in New York State Appendices; Paul A. Cillo & Harlan Lachman, Energy Efficiency Institute; Daniel Rosenblum & Fred Zalcman, Pace Energy Project. This paper describes the PAYS®system, the necessary regulatory approvals and the basis for them, and issues specific to New York.  August 3, 2005

Direct Testimony of Paul A. Cillo to the New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission on behalf of the New Hampshire Public Interest Research Group. This testimony documents how integrating the PAYS®system with existing subsidy programs can quadruple overall program effectiveness, reduce reliance on rebates, and transition to a more market-based system; (TestimonySummaryAppendices).  September 3, 2004

A Preliminary Analysis of the Cost Effectiveness of Potential PAYS®Products in Missouri (Appendices 2-11Appendix 12 ). This study outlines how the PAYS system can be used creatively even in a state with very low utility rates.  July 5, 2004

Filing to the New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission  This document lays out the Energy Efficiency Institute’s first PAYS® program design in the country. It was approved by the New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission in its November 29, 2001 Order No. 23,851. Eversource (formerly Public Service Company of New Hampshire) continued operating the Smart$tart program that was created by this filing.  April 12, 2001

Pay-As-You-Save Energy Efficiency Products: Restructuring Energy Efficiency.  Presented to the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners; Paul A. Cillo & Harlan Lachman. This was the first paper describing the PAYS® system, which has had many design enhancements since this paper was written.  December 1, 1999 

A Win/Win Approach For C&I Customers; the Electricity Journal.  Harlan Lachman, Paul A. Cillo, Ian Goodman, & Peter Kelly-Detwiler. This paper introducedthe concept of creating a participant-funded rate stabilization fund as part as utility cost recovery mechanisms. It was successfully implemented in 2012 in the Windsor Efficiency PAYS® program in California.  November, 1994.